Recent years have seen a tremendous increase in the popularity of electric automobiles as a cleaner and more environmentally friendly substitute for conventional gasoline-powered vehicles. These vehicles have various environmental and financial benefits by utilising electric motors and cutting-edge battery technology. This article will provide you with a thorough review of electric cars’ essential components if you’re interested in learning more about how they operate.

To understand how EVs work it is crucial to understand the key components of an EV. These components include the following. 


Charging point

An electric Vehicle (EV) charging point also known as a charging station is a specialized infrastructure that allows electric vehicles to recharge their batteries. These are designed to provide EV owners with convenient access to electricity for recharging their vehicles’ batteries at various locations including homes, workplaces, highways and public areas.

EV charging points come in different types and charging speeds to fulfil the needs of all kinds and models of EVs. The most common types are:

  1. Level 1 Charging

Level 1 charging uses a standard household outlet which generally has a voltage of 120 volts. This type of charging has the lowest speed and it takes up to 8-12 hours to completely charge an EV.

  1. Level 2 Charging

The charging equipment in level 2 offers to charge through a 240-volt AC plug, it has to be installed as a home charging station or a public charging station. This type of charging is relatively faster and takes up to 4-6 hours to fully charge an EV. 

  1. Level 3 Charging/DC fast charging

Level 3 charging, also known as DC charging, charges the electric vehicle through a 480 volt using a DC (direct current plug). These chargers usually charge an EV to full charge within 30 minutes. 



The inverter is a crucial part of electric vehicles (EVs). The battery’s direct current (DC) electricity is crucially transformed by the inverter into the alternating current (AC) power needed to operate the electric motor. As lithium-ion batteries only accept DC power. The inverter also regulates the electric motor’s speed and torque by adjusting the frequency and voltage of the AC power it produces. By varying these parameters, the inverter can provide precise control over the motor’s performance, enabling smooth acceleration, deceleration and efficient operation.


In addition to converting DC to AC power, the inverter also facilitates regenerative braking in electric vehicles. During regenerative braking, the electric motor acts as a generator, converting the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle into electrical energy. The inverter controls the flow of this generated electrical energy, directing it back into the battery for storage and later use.

Electric Traction Motor

An electric traction motor is a crucial component of electric vehicles that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy to propel the vehicle. It comes in various types, including brushed DC motors, brushless DC motors, induction motors, and synchronous motors. These motors deliver high torque, enable regenerative braking, and are controlled by inverters. They play a vital role in the performance and efficiency of electric vehicles.

Electric Powertrain

The entire system in an electric car that transmits electrical energy from the battery to the wheels to enable propulsion is referred to as the electric powertrain. It is made up of the battery pack, the electric traction motor, power electronics (such inverters), and other related parts. The functionality required for an electric vehicle to operate is provided by the powertrain, which controls the energy flow, transforms it into mechanical power, and regulates the vehicle’s speed and torque.

All these components work together in order to make the EV functional.

Types of EVs

  • Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) – These EVs are  powered using a Battery pack. They solely function on electricity and do not use internal combustion engines or gasoline at all and hence do not produce any harmful gases.
  • Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEV) – Plug-in hybrid vehicles feature both an electric traction motor as well as an combustion engine, which basically means that they require both EV charging as well as gasoline to function on. It uses the electric motor until it runs out of battery, in which case the internal combustion engine starts functioning and the car runs on gasoline.
  • Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) – Hybrid electric vehicles are a low emission vehicle and use a small battery pack in order to assist an internal combustion engine. HEVs receive most of their power from the gasoline and regenerative braking is used to power the small battery pack. They cannot be plugged in to charge.


In conclusion, electric cars are revolutionizing the automotive industry with their eco-friendly operation and advanced technologies. Understanding how electric cars work is essential to appreciate their benefits fully. From the electric motor and battery pack to the charging infrastructure and control systems, each component plays a vital role in powering and controlling these vehicles. As electric vehicle technology continues to advance, we can expect further improvements in range, charging speed, and overall performance, driving us towards a more sustainable future of transportation.


  1. https://www.nissanusa.com/experience-nissan/news-and-events/how-do-electric-cars-work.html#:~:text=Here%27s%20a%20basic%20rundown%20of,to%20make%20this%20motion%20happen. 
  1. https://www.edfenergy.com/energywise/how-do-electric-cars-work
  1. http://www.evtown.org/about-ev-town/ev-charging/charging-levels.html#:~:text=Level%201%20Charging,of%20a%20standard%20household%20outlet.
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