Electric Vehicles

EV (Electric Vehicle)

Electric Vehicles store electricity in a battery that powers the vehicle's wheels through an electric motor. An electric vehicle uses electric motors and motor controllers to power the vehicle. Different types of EVs include the battery electric vehicle (BEV), the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), and the fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV).

Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)

BEVs store energy within the lithium-ion batteries inside the vehicle. BEV doesn't have an internal combustion engine and relies solely on an electric battery system for energy. It must be plugged into a charging source to replenish its battery.

Plug-In Hybrid electric Vehicle (PHEV)

PHEV combines electric motor with an internal combustion engine. It has both internal combustion engine that uses gasoline as energy source and electric motor that use electric battery as energy source.

Ultra Low Emission Vehicle

A car with official tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions of less than 75g/km is considered Ultra Low Emission Vehicle. Such vehicles are eligible for grants in various countries.

Electric Vehicle Systems

SOC (State Of Charge)

SOC (State Of Charge) is the equivalent of a fuel gauge for the battery pack in an EV. The units of SOC are percentage points, with 0% meaning no charge left and 100% meaningfully charged.

Battery Management System (BMS)

Battery Management System is a software used to optimize the battery consumption of the electric vehicle to increase the range provided from a given battery source.

charging Management System (CMS)

In an electric vehicle, CMS manages and controls the charging process.

EV Charging Connector Types

eVSE (electric Vehicle Supply Equipment)

EVSE is an umbrella term for all components of an electric charging station


Connector, as used in OCPP specification, refers to an independently connected and managed electrical outlet on a charge point.


CHAdeMO is a Japanese standard fast-charging system made up of “CHArge de Move”.

Combined Charging System (CSS1 and CSS2)

CCS is a combined fast-charging system that can deliver direct or alternating current.

Charger Types

Charging Station

In principle, there are two types of charging stations - (a) Fast DC Charging Station (b) Slow AC Charging Station. In some cases, a charging station will have both fast DC charging station and slow AC charging station.

AC Charger

Alternating current (AC) charger works with the power of up to 22 kWh. Charging time will take 6-24 hours. AC charging columns are charging columns that are equipped with normal alternating current (AC). As a rule, the power of an AC charging column is 11 kWh.

DC Charger

Direct current (DC) charger generally transmit power from 50 kWh to 100 kWh. Charging will take 30 min – 1.5 hours. DC charging columns are operated with direct current (DC) and are often referred to as fast charging columns because they can transmit high performance in a short period of time. The charging power is very high and thus allows maximum speed – approx. 20 minutes (at >450 V DC, >100 A) for a 20 kWh car battery.

Ultra-fast Charger

Ultra-fast charger is a DC charger of 100 kWh. Charging will take 5-30 minutes.

Charger Types

Site Owner / Site Host

Site owner is the entity that owns or operates the location where charge points are installed. Often these are retail chains, restaurants, business centres, parking operators, municipalities, etc.

EV Driver

EV driver is a person who is driving an EV and is using charging services at home, at work and in various public or private places.

Charge Point Operator (CPO)

Charge point operators install, manage, and ensure optimal operations of chargers/stations from one or more manufacturers. They also offer diagnostics, maintenance, price tariff management, and other value-added services to provide smooth network operation. Charge point operators can benefit from roaming network hubs and also provide eMSP service while allowing access to the charging stations in their network from other eMSPs.

Charge Point Installer (CPI)

Charge point installers usually sell, commission and maintain in optimal condition charger points from one or more manufacturers to location owners. Their customers can be residential, retail, business centres, real estate developers, hotel chains, car dealers, parking operators, energy, oil and gas, CPOs, government and pretty much everyone who owns or provides car parking space.

electro-Mobility Service Provider (eMSP)

Electro-mobility Service Providers offer an EV charging service to EV drivers by enabling access to a large pool of charging points around a geographic area. They provide charger location and availability information, account details, payment capabilities, and more to ensure high driver satisfaction and retention levels.

Roaming Network Operator (RNO)

The RNO operates a platform to exchange charging data between Charge Point Operators (CPOs) and Electromobility Service Providers (EMSPs). Large RNOs in Europe are Hubject, Gireve, and e-clearing.

Electric Vehicle Service Provider (EVSP)

Electric Vehicle Service Provider provides network charging stations connectivity. Connecting to a cloud-based server, the EVSP manages the backend software, database and communications to enable stations’ operations.

Electric Vehicle Fleet Operator

EV Fleet Operator is responsible for the management and control of EV vehicle fleet charging. Electro-mobility’s main challenge is to ensure maximum availability and utilization of vehicles, considering charging times and cost optimization. EV fleet charging is prioritized based on fleet business priorities and the battery’s actual state of the electric vehicle.

Distribution Network Operator (DNO)

A distribution network operator is a company licensed to distribute electricity. These companies own and operate the system of cables and towers that bring electricity from the national transmission network to residential homes and businesses.

EV Charging Protocols & Standards

Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP)

Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) is an application protocol for communication between еlectric vehicle (EV) charging stations and central management systems, even when produced by different vendors.

Open Charge Point Interface (OCPI)

Open Charge Point Interface (OCPI) protocol is designed for exchanging information about charge points between Charge Point Operator and Electromobility Mobility Service Providers to enable a scalable, automated EV roaming. OCPI is an independent open roaming protocol and is free to use. It can work for direct connection or via roaming hubs.

Open Smart Charging Protocol (OCSP)

Open Smart Charging Protocol (OCSP) for communication between a charge point management system and the site owner’s energy management system.

ISO 15118

ISO 15118 is an international standard outlining the digital communication protocol that an electric vehicle (EV) and charging station should use to recharge the EV’s high-voltage battery.

ISO 15118's Plug & Charge

With ISO 15118's plug-n-charge technology, the driver just have to insert the charger plug into the car, charge, and drive away when ready. This process is made possible by a digital certificate located in the vehicle allowing it to communicate with the charging station via a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) communication protocol. This enables a seamless end-to-end charging process, including automatic authentication and billing and avoiding the need to use an RFID card, an app or to memorize PINs.

Vehicle 2 Grid (V2G)

Vehicle to grid introduces a new area of EV charging energy management. It is still not commonly used and is supported by only a small number of EV manufacturers. Currently, it is available only through DC charging stations. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) refers to bidirectional energy flow between an electric vehicle’s battery and the charging station. Energy can be transferred to a building (vehicle-to-building or V2B) the charging station is connected to manage energy costs or be sent to the grid (V2G) to earn revenue on energy markets. Similarly, if the building possesses excess energy from solar panels, this energy may be stored in the electric vehicle and re-used later.

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